* B.A. Antioch College 53: M.A. 55, Ph.D. 60 Cornell Univ. U.S. Army (Criminal Investigation Division) 54-56; Grant Foundation Fellow in Human Development 57-58: Senior Fellow, Cornell Graduate School 58-59; Chairman, Psychology Curriculum, Shimer College 59-60; Rsc. Psychologist, Lab. of Psychology, NIMH 60-.
  Grateful acknowledgement is made of the substantial contributions of Miss Judith C. Marshall and the assistance of Mrs. Linda B. J. P. Moncure in the preparation of this paper.
  1 The Varieties of Religious Experience; New York, Modern Library, 1902; pp. 378-379.
  2 S. Weir Mitchell, "The Effects of Anhelonium Lewinii (the Mescal Button)," Brit. Med. J. (1896) 2:1625-1629. Aldous Huxley, "Mescaline and the Other World." pp. 46-50, in Proceedings of the Round Table on Lysergic Acid Diethylamide and Mescaline in Experimental Psychiatry, edited by Louis Cholden; New York, Grune & Stratton, 1956; see p. 47.
  3 G. Tayleur Stockings, "Clinical Study of the Mescaline Psychosis with Special Reference to the Mechanisms of the Genesis of Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic States," J. Mental Science (1940) 86:29-47.
  4 For example, see Max Rtnkel, Editor, Chemical Concepts of Psychosis; New York, McDowell, Obolensky, 1958.
  5 For example, see Harold A. Abramson, Editor, The Use of LSD in Psychotherapy: Transactions of a Conference; New York, Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation Publications, 1960.
  6 Max Rinkel, C. W. Atwell, Alberto DiMascio, and J. R. Brown, "Experimental Psychiatry, V: Psilocybin, a New Psychotogenic Drug," New England J. Med. (1960) 262: 295-299. Stephen Szara, "Psychotomimetic or Mysticomimetic?," paper presented at NIMH, Bethesda, Md., Nov. 14, 1961.
  7 For examples, see: Nicholas Chwelos, Duncan Blewett, Colin Smith, and Abram Hoffer, "Use of LSD25 in the Treatment of Alcoholism," Quart. J. Studies on Alcohol (1959) 20: 577-590. J. Ross MacLean, D. C. MacDonald, Ultan P. Byrne, and A. M. Hubbard, "The Use of LSD25 in the Treatment of Alcoholism and Other Psychiatric Problems," Quart. J. Studies on Alcohol (1961) 22:34-45. P. O. O'Reilly and Genevieve Reich, "Lysergic Acid and the Alco holic,'' Diseases Nervous System (1962) 23:331-334.
  8 For examples, see: Charles Savage, James Terrill, and Donald D. Jackson, "LSD, Transcendence, and the New Beginning," J. Nervous and Mental Disease (1962) 135:425-439. John N. Sherwood, Myron J. Stolaroff, and Willis W. Harman, "The Psychedelic Experience--A New Concept in Psychotherapy," J. Neuropsychiatry (1962) 3:370-375.
  9 C. H. Van Rhijn, "Introductory Remarks: Participants,'' in footnote 5; p. 14.
  10 Gustav R. Schmiege, "The Current Status of LSD as a Therapeutic Tool--A Summary of the Clinical Literature," paper presented to the Amer. Psychiatric Assn., Toronto, Canada, May 8, 1962 (in press, New Jersey Med. Soc. J., 1963).
  11 Harris Isbell, "Comparison of the Reactions Induced by Psilocybin and LSD25 in Man," Psychopharmacologia (1959) 1:29-38. Harold A. Abramson, "Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD25): XXX, The Questionnaire Technique with Notes on Its Use," J. Psychology (1960) 49:57-65. A. B. Wolbach, E. J. Miner, and Harris Isbell, "Comparison of Psilocin with Psilocybin, Mescaline and LSD25," Psychopharmacologia (1962) 3:219-223.
  12 For examples, see: Max Rinkel, "Pharmaco-dynamics of LSD and Mescaline," J. Nervous and Mental Disease (1957) 125:424-426. T. J. Halay and J. Rutschmann, "Brain Concentrations of LSD 25 (Delysid) after Intracerebral or Intravenous Administration in Conscious Animals," Experientia (1957) 13:199-200.
  13 See Isbell, in footnote 11; p. 37.
  14 For examples, see: Antonio Balestrleri and Diego Fontanari, "Acquired and Crossed Tolerance to Mescaline, LSD25, and BOL-148," Arch. General Psychiatry (1959) 1:279-282. Harris Isbell, A. B. Wolbach, Abraham Wikler, and E. J. Miner, "Cross Tolerance Between LSD and Psilocybin," Psychopharmacologia (1961) 2:147-151
  15 T. W. Richards and Ian P. Stephenson, "Consistency in the Psychologic Reaction to Mescaline," Southern Med. J. (1961) 54:1319-1320.
  16 Havelock Ellis, "Mescal, a New Artificial Paradise,'' pp. 537-548, in Annual Report, Smithsonian Institution, 1897; p. 547.
  17 W. Mayer-Gross "Experimental Psychoses and Other Mental Abnormalities Produced by Drugs," Brit. Med. J. (1951) 57:317-321; p. 318.
  18 See Huxley, in footnote 2; pp. 47-48.
  19 From Albert Hofmann's laboratory report, translated and quoted in H. Jackson DeShon, Max Rinkel, and Harry C. Solomon, "Mental Changes Experimentally Produced by LSD," Psychiatric Quart. (1952) 26:33-53; p. 34.
  20 Frank Barron, "Unusual Realization and the Resolution of Paradox When Certain Structural Aspects of Consciousness Are Altered," paper read at the Amer. Psychological Assn., New York, September, 1961.
  21 E. Guttman and W. S. Maclay, "Mescaline and Depersonalization: Therapeutic Experiments," J. Neurol. Psychopath. (1936) 16:193-212; p. 194.
  22 Translated from a subject's account in K. Beringer, Der Meskalinrausch; Berlin, Springer, 1927; and quoted in Robert S. DeRopp, Drugs and the Mind; New York, Grove, !957; p. 51.
  23 Gregory Bateson, "Group Interchange," In footnote 5; p. 188.
  24 Ronald A. Sandison, A. M. Spencer, and J. D. A. Whitelaw, "The Therapeutic Value of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide in Mental Illness," J. Mental Science (1954) 100:491-507; p. 498.
  25 Electrophyslological investigations have shown definite alterations in firing at a number of points in the visual system (also in auditory evoked potentials) and in the functioning of cortico-cortical (transcallosal) connections. However, in concluding an extensive review of electrophysiological results, Evarts warned: " . . it does not appear that we have reached the point of being able to assign any particular psychological effect.., to a demonstrated disturbance of the electrical activity of the nervous system." See Edward V. Evarts, "A Review of the Neurophysiological Effects of LSD and Other Psychotomimetic Agents," Annals N. Y. Acad. Science (1957) 66:479-495; p. 489. Speculation on this issue may best be tempered by consulting Evarts' most thoughtful summation and evaluation.
  26 See footnote 16; p. 547.
  27 See footnote 17; p. 319.
  28 Paul H. Hoch, "Experimental Psychiatry," Amer. J. Psychiatry (1955) 111:787-790; p. 787
  29 For example, see A. Levine, Harold A. Abramson, M. R. Kaufman, and S. Markham, "Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD25): XVI. The Effect of Intellectual Functioning as Measured by the Wechsler Bellevue Intelligence Scale," J. Psychology (1955) 40:385-395.
  30 Charles Savage, "The Resolution and Subsequent Remobilization of Resistance by LSD in Psychotherapy," J. Nervous and Mental Disease (1957) 125: 434-436; p. 436.
  31 Heinrich Klüver, Mescal: The Divine Plant and Its Psychological Effects; London, Kegan Paul, 1928; pp. 105-106.
  32 See footnote 21; p. 195.
  33 Humphry Osmond, "A Review of the Clinical Effects of Psychotomimetic Agents," Annals N. Y. Acad. Science (1957) 66:418-434; p 419.
  34 Aldous Huxley, The Doors of Perception; New York, Harper, 1954; pp. 73, 79.
  35 Philip B. Smith, "A Sunday with Mescaline," Bull. Menninger Clinic (1959) 23:20-27; p. 27
  36 Audrey R. Holliday, "The Hallucinogens: A Consideration of Semantics and Methodology with Particular Reference to Psychological Studies," pp. 301-318, in A PharmacologicApproach to the Study of the Mind, edited by R. Featherstone and A. Simon; Springfield, Ill., Thomas, 1959; p. 301.
  37 See footnote 17, p. 320, for a review of the findings of K. Zucker, Z. ges. Neurog. Psychiat. (1930) 127:108.
  38 See footnote 31.
  39 James S. Slotkin, Peyote Religion; Glencoe, III., Free Press, 1956; pp. 76-77.
  40 Translated from Albert Hofmann's laboratory report, and quoted in "Discovery of D-lysergic Acid Diethylamide--LSD," Sandoz Excerpta (1955) 1:12; p. 1.
  41 See footnote 40; p. 2. For the record, it may be noted not only that Hofmann recovered, and subsequently synthesized psilocybin, but that he has recently written of the use of "psychotomimetics" in psychotherapy: "... these substances are new drug aids which . . . enable the patient to attain self-awareness and gain insight into his disease." See Albert Hofmann, "Chemical, Pharmacological and Medical Aspects of Psychotomimetics," J. Exper. Med. Science (1961) 5:31-51; p. 48.
  42 Translated from B. Manzini and A. Saraval, "L'intossicazione Sperimentale da LSD ed i Suoi Rapporti con la Schizofrenia, Riv. Sper. Freniat. (1960) 84:589; and quoted in Delysid (LSD25), Annotated Bibliography, Addendum No. 3, mimeographed, Sandoz Pharmaceuticals, 1961; p. 307.
  43 See footnote 33; p. 429.
  44 In taking issue with the "psychotomimetic" label, it had best be emphasized that the present intent is hardly to transmit a cavalier attitude toward drug administrations; these are obviously potent agents. On the other hand, they are also apparently "safe" when used with reasonable precaution. For a survey of the outcome of 25,000 administrations, see Sidney Cohen, "LSD: Side Effects and Complications," J. Nervous and Mental Disease (1960) 130:30-40.
  45 For example, see Joseph Zubin and Martin M. Katz, "Psychopharmacology and Personality," presented at the Colloquium on Personality Change, Univ. of Texas, Austin, Texas, March 9, 1962 (in press).
  46 See footnote 28; p. 788.
  47 Paul H. Hoch, "Remarks on LSD and Mescaline," J. Nervous and Mental Disease (1957) 125:442-444; p. 442.
  48 Paul H. Hoch, Solomon Katzenelbogen, and Her man C. B. Denber, "Group Interchange," in foot note 5; p. 58.
  49 Sidney Malitz, "Group Interchange," in footnote 5; p. 215.
  50 See footnote 19; p. 50.
  51 Harold A. Abramson, "Some Observations on Normal Volunteers and Patients," pp. 51-54, in Proceedings of the Round Table on Lysergic Acid Diethylamide and Mescaline in Experimental Psychiatry, in footnote 2; see pp. 52-53.
  52 Ronald A. Sandison, "The Clinical Uses of LSD," pp. 27-34, in Proceedings of the Round Table on Lysergic Acid Diethylamide and Mescaline in Experimental Psychiatry, in footnote 2; see p. 33.
  53 Anthony K. Busch and Waiter C. Johnson, "LSD 25 as an Aid in Psychotherapy (Preliminary Report of a New Drug)," Diseases Nervous System (1950) 11:241-243; pp. 242-243.
  54 Ronald A. Sandison, "Psychological Aspects of the LSD Treatment of the neuroses," J. Mental Science (1954), 100:508-515; p. 514.
  55 See footnote 24; p. 507
  56 Mortimer A. Hartman, "Group Interchange," in footnote 5; p. 115.
  57 See footnote 20.
  58 See Charles Savage, "Group Interchange," in footnote 5; pp. 193-194.
  59 Sidney Malitz, Harold Esecover, Bernard Wilkens, and Paul H. Hoch, "Some Observations on Psilocybin, a New Hallucinogen, in Volunteer Subjects,'' Comprehensive Psychiatry (1960) 1:817; p. 15.
  60 See footnote 51; p. 52.
  61 Robert W. Hyde, "Psychological and Social Determinants of Drug Action," pp. 297-312, in The Dynamics of Psychiatric Drug Therapy, edited by G. J. Sarwer-Foner; Springfield, Ill., Thomas, 1960.
  62 Ronald A. Sandison, "Group Interchange," in footnote 5; p. 91. Any remaining skeptics on the score of expectation and attitude may want to take note of Cohen's caveat: "Invariably, those who take hallucinogenic agents to demonstrate that they have no value in psychiatric exploration have an unhappy time of it. In a small series of four psychoanalysts who took 100 gamma of LSD, all had dysphoric responses." See footnote 44; p. 32.
  63 See footnote 34; p. 14.
  64 Ralph Metzner, George Litwin, and Gunther Weil, "The Relation of Expectation and Setting to Experiences with Psilocybin: A Questionnaire Study," dittoed, Harvard Univ., 1963. Charles Savage, Willis Harman, James Fadiman, and Ethel Savage, "A Follow-up Note on the Psychedelic Experience,'' mimeographed, International Foundation for Advanced Study, 1963. It may be noted that only slightly lower figures have been reported without explicit preparation of the subjects--though with an "atmosphere" that was enthusiastic and supportive. See Keith S. Ditman, Max Hyman, and John R. B. Whittlesey, "Nature and Frequency of Claims Following LSD," J. Nervous and Mental Disease (1962) 134:346-352.
  65 For example, see Jerome D. Frank, Persuasion and Healing: A Comparative Study of Psychotherapy; Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1961. More specifically, see Colin M. Smith, "Some Reflections on the Possible Therapeutic Effects of the Hallucinogens,'' Quart. J. Studies on Alcohol (1959) 20:292-301.
  66 See footnote 10.
  67 Alan W. Watts, This is IT; New York, Pantheon, 1960; p. 17.
  68 Alan W. Watts, The Joyous Cosmology; New York, Pantheon, 1962.
  69 Timothy Leary, "The Influence of Psilocybin on Subjective Experience," paper presented at NIMH, Bethesda, Md., May 29, 1962.
  70 Aldous Huxley. Heaven and Hell; New York, Harper, 1956; p. 63.
  71 See footnote 1; pp. 213-222.
  72 Ruth Benedict, Patterns of Culture; New York, New American Library, 1934; pp. 72-73.
  73 See footnote 72; pp. 74--75.
  74 Abraham H. Maslow, "Cognition of Being in the Peak Experience," J. Genetic Psychology (1959) 95:43-66.
  75 See footnote 39.
  76 Keith S. Ditman and John R. B. Whittlesey, "Comparison of the LSD25 Experience and Delirium Tremens," Arch. General Psychiatry (1959) 1:47-57. Colin M. Smith, "A New Adjunct to the Treatment of Alcoholism: The Hallucinogenic Drugs," Quart. J. Studies on Alcohol (1958) 19:1931. By the way, the LSD experience and delirium tremens were found to be distinctly dissimilar in most respects.
  77 See Sherwood and co-workers, in footnote 8.
  78 Abram Hoffer, "Group Interchange," in foot note 5; pp. 59, 114-115.
  79 Ball and Jean J. Armstrong, "The Use of L.S.D. 25 in the Treatment of the Sexual Perversions,'' Canadian Psychiatric Assn. J. (1961) 6:231-235.
  80 See footnote 79; p. 234.
  81 See MacLean and coworkers, in footnote 7.
  82 A personal communication (1963) from J. Ross MacLean indicates sustained success in 270 additional post-publication cases of "psychedelic treatment.''
  83 See MacLean and co-workers, in footnote 7; p. 38.
  84 The preparation of the subject and the conduct of the 12-hour session were patterned along the lines described by Blewett and Chwelos. See Duncan B. Blewett and Nicholas Chwelos, Handbook for the Therapeutic Use of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide-25, Individual and Group Procedures; to be published.
  85 Sven E. Jensen, "A Treatment Program for Alcoholics In a Mental Hospital," Quart. J. Studies on Alcohol (1962) 23:315-320; pp. 317-319.
  86 Apparent Results of Referrals of Alcoholics for LSD Therapy," Report of the Bureau on Alcoholism, 
Saskatchewan Department of Public Health, Regina, Saskatchewan, Dec. 31, 1962; p. 5.
  87 Timothy Leary, Ralph Metzner, Madison Presnell, Gunther Well, Ralph Schwitzgebel, and Sara Kinne, "A Change Program for Adult Offenders Using Psilocybin," dittoed, Harvard Univ., 1962.
  88 Timothy Leary, "Second Annual Report: Psilocybin Rehabilitation Project," dittoed, Freedom Center, Inc., 1963.
  89 See Sherwood and co-workers, in footnote 8; p. 370.
  90 See footnote 89 and Savage and coworkers in footnote 64.
  91 See David Rosenthal and Jerome D. Frank, "Psychotherapy and the Placebo Effect," Psychol. Bull. (1956) 53:294-302.
  92 Timothy Leary, "How to Change Behavior," pp. 50-68, in Clinical Psychology, XIV International Congress of Applied Psychology, Vol. 4, edited by Gerhard S. Neilsen; Copenhagen, Munksgaard, 1962; p. 58.
  93 Wilson Van Dusen, "LSD and the Enlightenment of Zen," Psychologia (1961) 4:11-16; p. 11.
  94 See footnote 1; p. 242.
  95 See footnote 1; pp. 242-243.
  96 See footnote 1; p. 195.
  97 See footnote 72; p. 78.
  98 See Chwelos and coworkers, in footnote 7; p. 583.
  99 See footnote 7; p. 584.
  100 See footnote 1; pp. 190-194.
  101 Anthony F. C. Wallace, "Stress and Rapid Personality Changes," Internat. Record Med. (1956) 169:761-774; p. 770.
  102 William Sargant, Battle for the Mind: A Physiology of Conversion and Brain-washing; Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1957.
  103 See Ditman and co-workers, in footnote 64.
  104 For example, see Daniel E. Sheer, Editor, Electrical Stimulation of the Brain; Austin, Univ. of Texas Press, 1961.
  105 See footnote 72; p. 72.

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